Epidemiology of myopia

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Myopia is the leading cause of distance refractive error, with estimates of 50% of the global population being affected by 2050. Our myopia research is a collaboration between research groups at ARU and partners globally.

We investigated factors related to the accommodation system both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in myopes. Our researchers identified reasons for such deficits in accommodation, and were the first to show that reduced accommodative response in myopes may be due to a decrease in sensitivity to negative lens blur, and that the optimum focus for a system which drives accommodation is more negative in myopes.

We investigated potential treatments for myopia, mainly vision training and specially designed contact lenses to improve the accuracy of accommodation during near-work. Preliminary data indicated that the treatment was successful in improving the accommodative responses of myopes. We were the first to show to show that accommodative facility and lag of accommodation are independently associated with the progression of myopia in young adults.

We have contributed to the debate on the contribution of peripheral refractive error to myopia progression by demonstrating how these errors vary in the nasal and temporal retina in distance and near vision.

Our study in India examined the interaction between family history of myopia and amount of near-work, showing that myopes with a family history of myopia progress more than those without, and also highlighting association between myopia and IQ scores.

We are conducting a number of clinical trials on myopia and progression of myopia.

Support for this research has come from the Government of Australia and the Brien Holden Institute.

Self-reported Visual Problems in Europe (EUROVISION)

EUROVISION aims to raise the profile of eye health and vision, help prevent avoidable visual impairment, and secure an equal and inclusive society for those with irreversible blindness or low vision in Europe.

This project is supported by a European Marie Curie Fellowship grant (HORIZON 2020 programme, European Commission), with the support of the European Coalition for Vision (ECV). The ECV is an alliance made up of professional bodies, patient groups, European NGOs, disabled people’s organisations and associations of health technology providers representing suppliers.

Prior to this project we were unaware of the self-reported sensory problems of European Union citizens. This research project has analysed the responses of more than 300,000 participants in the European Health Interview Survey and reports self-reported vision and hearing problems of European Union citizens for the first time, placed in the context of many other factors including demographic, socio-economic, health determinants and healthcare access factors.

Professor Nicolas Leveziel (Marie Curie Fellow)
Professor Rupert Bourne
Professor Shahina Pardhan
Professor Tunde Peto
Dr Julie-Ann Little


Ducloux, A., Marillet, S., Ingrand, P., Bullimore, M. A., Bourne, R. R. A., Leveziel, N., 2021. Progression of myopia in teenagers and adults: a nationwide longitudinal study of a prevalent cohort. British Journal of Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319568

Foreman, J., Salim, A. T., Praveen, A., Fonseka, D., Ting, D. S. W., Guang He, M., Bourne, R. R. A., Crowston, J., Wong, T. Y., Dirani, M., 2021. Association between digital smart device use and myopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Digital Health. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00135-7

Bullimore, M. A., Ritchey, E. R., Shah, S., Leveziel, N., Bourne, R .R. A., Flitcroft, D. I., 2021. The Risks and Benefits of Myopia Control. Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.04.032

Tricard, D., Marillet, S., Ingrand, P., Bullimore, M. A., Bourne, R. R. A., Leveziel, N. 2021. Progression of myopia in children and teenagers: a nationwide longitudinal study. British Journal of Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-318256

Leveziel, N., Marillet, S., Braithwaite, T., Peto, T., Ingrand, P., Pardhan, S., Bron, A. M., Jonas, J. B., Resnikoff, S., Little, J., Bourne, R. R. A., 2020. Self-reported visual difficulties in Europe and related factors: a European population-based cross-sectional survey. Acta Ophthalmologica. doi: 10.1111/aos.14643

Leveziel, N., Marillet, S., Dufour, Q., Lichtwitz, O., Bentaleb, Y., Pelen, F., Ingrand, P., Bourne, R., 2020. Prevalence of macular complications related to myopia – Results of a multicenter evaluation of myopic patients in eye clinics in France. Acta Ophthalmologica, 98(2), pp. e245-e251. doi: 10.1111/aos.14246

Price, H., Allen, P. M., Radhakrishnan, H., Calver, R., Rae, S., Theagarayan, B., Sailoganathan, A., O'Leary, D. J., 2013. The Cambridge anti-myopia study: Variables associated with myopia progression. Optometry and Vision Science, 90(11), pp. 1274-1283. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000067

Allen, P. M., Radhakrishnan, H., Price, H., Rae, S., Theagarayan, B., Calver, R. I., Sailoganathan, A., Latham, K. and O’Leary, D. J., 2013. A randomised clinical trial to assess the effect of a dual treatment on myopia progression: The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 33(3) pp. 267-276. doi: 10.1111/opo.12035

Radhakrishnan, H., Allen, P. M., Calver, R. I., Theagarayan, B., Price, H., Rae, S., Sailoganathan, A., O’Leary, D. J., 2013. Peripheral refractive changes associated with myopia progression. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54(2) pp. 1573-1581. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10278

Read more about recent publications.