Epidemiology

Epidemiology of eye disease picture

We're engaged in a number of research projects concerning the incidence and distribution of eye disease, eye health and hearing loss – in the UK, Europe and internationally.

Global Burden of Eye Disease

Established by ophthalmologists and optometrists, the Global Vision Database develops and shares evidence on the causes and prevalence of blindness and vision impairment around the world.

National Eye Health and Hearing Study

This research project is addressing the need for high-quality data on hearing loss and eye health in the UK, to allow for service planning and improved outcomes.

Epidemiology of myopia

Myopia is the leading cause of distance refractive error, with estimates of 50% of the global population being affected by 2050. Our myopia research is a collaboration between research groups at ARU and partners globally.

Recent publications

2021

Ducloux, A., Marillet, S., Ingrand, P., Bullimore, M. A., Bourne, R. R. A., Leveziel, N., 2021. Progression of myopia in teenagers and adults: a nationwide longitudinal study of a prevalent cohort. British Journal of Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319568

Foreman, J., Salim, A. T., Praveen, A., Fonseka, D., Ting, D. S. W., Guang He, M., Bourne, R. R. A., Crowston, J., Wong, T. Y., Dirani, M., 2021. Association between digital smart device use and myopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Digital Health. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00135-7

Keel, S., Müller, A., Block, S., Bourne, R., Burton, M. J., Chatterji, S., He, M., Lansingh, V. C., Mathenge, W., Mariotti, S., Muirhead, D., Rabiu, M. M., Ravilla, T. D., Resnikoff, S., Silva, J. C., Tapply, I., Vos, T., Wang, N., Cieza, A., 2021. Keeping an eye on eye care: monitoring progress towards effective coverage. The Lancet Global Health, 9(10), e1460-e1464. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00212-6

Marques, A. P., Ramke, J., Cairns, J., Butt, T., Zhang, J. H., Muirhead, D., Jones, I., Ah Tong, B. A. M., Swenor, B. K., Faal, H., Bourne, R. R. A, Frick, K. D., Burton, M. J., 2021. Global economic productivity losses from vision impairment and blindness. EClinicalMedicine. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100852

Burton, M. J., Ramke, J., Marques, A. P., Bourne, R. R. A., Congdon, N., Jones, I., et al., 2021. The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020. The Lancet Global Health. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30488-5

Adelson, J. D., Bourne, R. R. A., Briant, P. S., Flaxman, S. R., Taylor, H. R. B., Jonas, J. B., et al., 2021. Causes of blindness and vision impairment in 2020 and trends over 30 years, and prevalence of avoidable blindness in relation to VISION 2020: the Right to Sight: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet Global Health, 9(2), e144-e160. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30489-7

Bourne, R., Steinmetz, J. D., Flaxman, S., Briant, P. S., Taylor, H. R., Resnikoff, S., et al., 2021. Trends in prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment over 30 years: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet Global Health, 9(2), e130-e143. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30425-3

Read more about 2021.

2020

Abbafati, C., Machado, D. B., Cislaghi, B., Salman, O. M., Karanikolos, M., McKee, M. et al. (Bourne), 2020. Five insights from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 396(10258), pp. 1135-1159. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31404-5

Abbafati, C., Machado, D. B., Cislaghi, B., Salman, O. M., Karanikolos, M., McKee, M. et al. (Bourne), 2020. Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950–2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 396(10258), pp. 1160-1203. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30977-6

Abbafati, C., Machado, D. B., Cislaghi, B., Salman, O. M., Karanikolos, M., McKee, M. et al. (Bourne), 2020. Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 396(10258), pp. 1204-1222. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30925-9

Abbafati, C., Machado, D. B., Cislaghi, B., Salman, O. M., Karanikolos, M., McKee, M. et al. (Bourne), 2020. Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 396(10258), pp. 1223-1249. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30752-2

Bourne, R. R. A., 2020. Vision 2020: Where are we? Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 31(2), pp. 81-84. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000647

Braithwaite, T., Verlander, N. Q., Peto, T., Bartholomew, D., Deomansingh, F., Bridgemohan, P., Saei, A., Sharma, S., Singh, D., Ramsewak, S. S., Bourne, R. R. A., 2020. National Eye Survey of Trinidad and Tobago (NESTT): Prevalence, causes and risk factors for presenting vision impairment in adults over 40 years. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 104(1), pp. 74-80. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-313428

Cheng, C.., Wang, N., Wong, T. Y., Congdon, N., He, M., Wang, Y. X. et al. (Bourne), 2020. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 104(5), pp. 616-622. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-313308

Keel, S., Evans, J. R., Block, S., Bourne, R., Calonge, M., Cheng, C.., Friedman, D. S., Furtado, J. M., Khanna, R. C., Mathenge, W., Mariotti, S., Matoto, E., Müller, A., Rabiu, M. M., Rasengane, T., Zhao, J., Wormald, R., Cieza, A., 2020. Strengthening the integration of eye care into the health system: Methodology for the development of the WHO package of eye care interventions. BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 5(1). doi: 10.1136/bmjophth-2020-000533

Leveziel, N., Marillet, S., Braithwaite, T., Peto, T., Ingrand, P., Pardhan, S., Bron, A. M., Jonas, J. B., Resnikoff, S., Little, J., Bourne, R. R. A., 2020. Self-reported visual difficulties in Europe and related factors: a European population-based cross-sectional survey. Acta Ophthalmologica. doi: 10.1111/aos.14643

Leveziel, N., Marillet, S., Dufour, Q., Lichtwitz, O., Bentaleb, Y., Pelen, F., Ingrand, P., Bourne, R., 2020. Prevalence of macular complications related to myopia – Results of a multicenter evaluation of myopic patients in eye clinics in France. Acta Ophthalmologica, 98(2), e245-e251. doi: 10.1111/aos.14246

Marques, A. P., Ramke, J., Cairns, J., Butt, T., Zhang, J. H., Faal, H. B., Taylor, H., Jones, I., Congdon, N., Bastawrous, A., Braithwaite, T., Jovic, M., Resnikoff, S., Nandakumar, A., Khaw, P.T., Bourne, R. R. A., Gordon, I., Frick, K., Burton, M. J., 2020. Estimating the global cost of vision impairment and its major causes: protocol for a systematic review. BMJ Open, 10 (9), e036689. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036689

Naidoo, K., Kempen, J. H., Gichuhi, S., Braithwaite, T., Casson, R. J., Cicinelli, M. V., Das, A., Flaxman, S. R., Jonas, J. B., Keeffe, J. E., Leasher, J., Limburg, H., Pesudovs, K., Resnikoff, S., Silvester, A. J., Tahhan, N., Taylor, H. R., Wong, T. Y., Bourne, R. R. A., 2020. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 104(12), pp. 1658-1668. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2019-315217

Xu, T., Wang, B., Liu, H., Wang, H., Yin, P., Dong, W., Li, J., Wang, Y. X., Yusufu, M., Briant, P., Reinig, N., Ashbaugh, C., Adelson, J., Vos, T., Bourne, R., Wang, N., Zhou, M., 2020. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in China from 1990 to 2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Public Health, 5(12), e682-e691. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30254-1

Read more about 2020.

2019

Bourne, R. R. A., Jonas, J. B., Resnikoff, S., 2019. Looking Within Rather Than between Countries to Understand the Risk Factors for Vision Impairment. JAMA Ophthalmology, 137(2), pp. 158-159. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.5448

Braithwaite, T., Bailey, H., Bartholomew, D., Saei, A., Pesudovs, K., Ramsewak, S. S., Bourne, R., Gray, A., 2019. Impact of Vision Loss on Health-Related Quality of Life in Trinidad and Tobago. Ophthalmology, 126(7), pp. 1055-1058. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.01.023

Burton, M. J., Faal, H. B., Ramke, J., Ravilla, T., Holland, P., Wang, N., West, S. K., Bourne, R. R. A., Congdon, N. G., Foster, A., 2019. Announcing The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health. The Lancet Global Health, 7(12), e1612-e1613. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30450-4

Kahloun, R., Khairallah, M., Resnikoff, S., Cicinelli, M. V., Flaxman, S. R., Das, A., Jonas, J. B., Keeffe, J. E., Kempen, J. H., Leasher, J., Limburg, H., Naidoo, K., Pesudovs, K., Silvester, A. J., Tahhan, N., Taylor, H. R., Wong, T. Y., Bourne, R. R. A., 2019. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and Middle East in 2015: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 103(7), pp. 863-870. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312068

Keeffe, J. E., Casson, R. J., Pesudovs, K., Taylor, H. R., Cicinelli, M. V., Das, A., Flaxman, S. R., Jonas, J. B., Kempen, J. H., Leasher, J., Limburg, H., Naidoo, K., Silvester, A. J., Stevens, G. A., Tahhan, N., Wong, T. Y., Resnikoff, S., Bourne, R. R. A., 2019. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in South-east Asia and Oceania in 2015: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 103(7), pp. 878-884. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-311946

Leasher, J. L., Braithwaite, T., Furtado, J. M., Flaxman, S. R., Lansingh, V. C., Silva, J. C., Resnikoff, S., Taylor, H. R., Bourne, R. R. A., 2019. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 103(7), pp. 885-893. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-311746

Nangia, V., Jonas, J. B., George, R., Lingam, V., Ellwein, L., Cicinelli, M. V., Das, A., Flaxman, S. R., Keeffe, J. E., Kempen, J. H., Leasher, J., Limburg, H., Naidoo, K., Pesudovs, K., Resnikoff, S., Silvester, A. J., Tahhan, N., Taylor, H. R., Wong, T. Y., Bourne, R. R. A., 2019. Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 103(7), pp. 871-877. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312292

Read more about 2019.

2018

Ackland, P., Resnikoff, S., Bourne, R., 2018. World blindness and visual impairment: Despite many successes, the problem is growing. Community Eye Health Journal, 30(100), pp. 71-73.

Bourne, R. R. A., Jonas, J. B., Bron, A. M., Cicinelli, M. V., Das, A., Flaxman, S. R., et al., 2018. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe in 2015: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 102(5), pp. 575-585. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-311258

Braithwaite, T., Winford, B., Bailey, H., Bridgemohan, P., Bartholomew, D., Singh, D., Sharma, S., Sharma, R., Silva, J. C., Gray, A., Ramsewak, S. S., Bourne, R. R. A., 2018. Health system dynamics analysis of eyecare services in Trinidad and Tobago and progress towards Vision 2020 Goals. Health Policy and Planning, 33(1), pp. 70-84. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czx143

Dicker, D., Nguyen, G., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C. et al. (Bourne), 2018. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), pp. 1684-1735. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31891-9

Foreman, J., Keel, S., van Wijngaarden, P., Bourne, R., Wormald, R., Crowston, J., Taylor, H. R., Dirani, M., 2018. Vision loss in Indigenous peoples of the world: a systematic review protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 16(2), pp. 260-268. doi: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003419

Foreman, J., Keel, S., Wijngaarden, P. V., Bourne, R. A., Wormald, R., Crowston, J., Taylor, H. R., Dirani, M., 2018. Prevalence and causes of visual loss among the indigenous peoples of the world a systematic review. JAMA Ophthalmology, 136(5), pp. 567-580. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.0597

Foreman, J., Xie, J., Keel, S., Ang, G. S., Lee, P. Y., Bourne, R., Crowston, J. G., Taylor, H. R., Dirani, M., 2018. Prevalence and causes of unilateral vision impairment and unilateral blindness in Australia the national eye health survey. JAMA Ophthalmology, 136(3), pp. 240-248. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.6457

James, S. L., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C., Abbasi, N. et al. (Bourne), 2018. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 Diseases and Injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), pp. 1789-1858. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7

Kyu, H. H., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C., Abbasi, N., et al. (Bourne), 2018. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), pp. 1859-1922. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32335-3

Lozano, R., Fullman, N., Abate, D., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C., Abbasi, N., et al. (Bourne), 2018. Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), pp. 2091-2138. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32281-5

Stanaway, J. D., Afshin, A., Gakidou, E., Lim, S. S., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., et al. (Bourne), 2018. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), pp. 1923-1994. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32225-6

Wang, B., Congdon, N., Bourne, R., Li, Y., Cao, K., Zhao, A., Yusufu, M., Dong, W., Zhou, M., Wang, N., 2018. Burden of vision loss associated with eye disease in China 1990-2020: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 102(2), pp. 220-224. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310333

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2017

Bourne, R. R. A., Flaxman, S. R., Braithwaite, T., Cicinelli, M. V., Das, A., Jonas, J. B., et al., 2017. Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 5(9), e888-e897. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30293-0

Braithwaite, T., Taylor, H., Bourne, R., Keeffe, J., Pesudovs, K., 2017. Does blindness count? Disability weights for vision loss. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 45(3), pp. 217-220. doi: 10.1111/ceo.12874

Braithwaite, T., Verlander, N. Q., Bartholomew, D., Bridgemohan, P., McNally, K., Roach, A., Sharma, S., Singh, D., Pesudovs, K., Teelucksingh, S., Carrington, C., Ramsewak, S., Bourne, R., 2017. The National Eye Survey of Trinidad and Tobago (NESTT): Rationale, Objectives and Methodology. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 24(2), pp. 116-129. doi: 10.1080/09286586.2016.1259639

Chakravarthy, U., Biundo, E., Saka, R. O., Fasser, C., Bourne, R., Little, J. A., 2017. The Economic Impact of Blindness in Europe. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 24(4), pp. 239-247. doi: 10.1080/09286586.2017.1281426

Flaxman, S. R., Bourne, R. R. A., Resnikoff, S., Ackland, P., Braithwaite, T., Cicinelli, M. V., et al., 2017. Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990–2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 5(12), e1221-e1234. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30393-5

Foreman, J., Xie, J., Keel, S., van Wijngaarden, P., Sandhu, S. S., Ang, G. S., Fan Gaskin, J., Crowston, J., Bourne, R., Taylor, H. R., Dirani, M., 2017. The Prevalence and Causes of Vision Loss in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: The National Eye Health Survey. Ophthalmology, 124(12), pp. 1743-1752. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.06.001

Hay, S. I., Abajobir, A. A., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., et al. (Bourne), 2017. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet, 390(10100), pp. 1260-1344. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32130-X

Naghavi, M., Abajobir, A. A., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., et al. (Bourne), 2017. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet, 390(10100), pp. 1151-1210. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32152-9

Vos, T., Abajobir, A. A., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abate, K. H., Abd-Allah, F., et al. (Bourne), 2017. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet, 390(10100), pp. 1211-1259. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32154-2

Wang, H., Abajobir, A. A., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., et al. (Bourne), 2017. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet, 390(10100), pp. 1084-1150. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31833-0

Read more about 2017.