Public health

A woman using the Vision and Eye Research Institute's sensory movement equipment

In collaboration with colleagues within ARU and internationally, we are conducting research into social and health determinants that are associated with vision loss.

Dual sensory loss: frailty

Building on our recent research examining the effects of dual sensory (vision, hearing) losses, we are looking at the additive or synergistic effects of multiple impairments on health outcomes. It is known multiple deficits have greater negative effects than single impairment.

The impact of sensory loss on mental health

Vision (and hearing losses) individually have a substantial impact on mental health. Our recent research shown that combined sensory loss has a much bigger impact on depression and chronic anxiety. While it is not possible to alter irreversible causes of visual and hearing losses, it may be possible to address the mental health of people who have sensory impairment.

Physical and other activities

Our research looks at associations between physical activity and ocular health.


Professor Shahina Pardhan
Professor Rupert Bourne
Dr Lee Smith
Dr Guillermo F. López-Sánchez
Mike Trott

Recent publications

Pardhan, S., Smith, L., Davis, A., Bourne, R., Barnett, Y., Jacob, L., Koyanagi, A., Radzimiński, Ł, Skalska, M., Jastrzębska, J., Jastrzębski, Z., López-Sánchez, G.,F., 2021. Gender differences in the association between physical activity and obesity in adults with vision and hearing losses. European Journal of Public Health. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckab077

Haile, L. M., Kamenov, K., Briant, P. S., Orji, A. U., Steinmetz, J. D., Abdoli, A., et al., 2021. Hearing loss prevalence and years lived with disability, 1990–2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 397(10278), pp. 996-1009. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00516-X

Smith, L., López-Sánchez, G. F., Jacob, L., Barnett, Y., Pardhan, S., Veronese, N., Soysal, P., Tully, M., Gorely, T., Shin, J. I., Koranagi, A. 2021. Objectively measured far vision impairment and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥65 years from six low- and middle-income countries. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. doi: 10.1007/s40520-021-01841-y

Smith, L., Pardhan, S., Gorely, T., Barnett, Y., López-Sánchez, G. F., Tully, M., Shin, J. I., Koyanagi, A. 2021. Physical activity and visual difficulties in 36 low- and middle-income countries. Eye. doi: 10.1038/s41433-021-01439-8

Jacob, L., Smith, L., Armstrong, N. C., Yakkundi, A., Barnett, Y., Butler, L., McDermott, D. T., Koyanagi, A., Shin, J. I., Meyer, J., Firth, J., Remes, O., López-Sánchez, G. F., Tully, M. A., 2021. Alcohol use and mental health during COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study in a sample of UK adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 219. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108488

Jacob, L., López-Sánchez, G. F., Haro, J. M., Koyanagi, A., Kostev, K., Grabovac, I., Oh, H., Pardhan, S., McDermott, D., Shin, J. I., Smith, L., 2021. Association between sexual orientation and subjective cognitive complaints in the general population in England. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 136, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.01.042

Pardhan, S., Smith, L., Bourne, R., Davis, A., Leveziel, N., Jacob, L., Koyanagi, A., López-Sánchez, G. F., 2021. Combined Vision and Hearing Difficulties Results in Higher Levels of Depression and Chronic Anxiety: Data From a Large Sample of Spanish Adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.627980

Jacob, L., Smith, L., Koyanagi, A., Pardhan, S., Allen, P., Yang, L., Grabovac, I., Shin, J. I., Tully, M.A., López‐Sánchez, G. F., 2020. Associations between obesity and ocular health in Spanish adults. Lifestyle Medicine, 1(1). doi: 10.1002/lim2.5

López-Sánchez, G. F., Pardhan, S., Trott, M., Sánchez-Castillo, S., Jackson, S. E., Tully, M., Gorely, T., López-Bueno, R., Veronese, N., Skalska, M., Jastrzębska, J., Jastrzębski, Z., Smith, L., 2020. The Association Between Physical Activity and Cataracts Among 17,777 People Aged 15–69 Years Residing in Spain. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 27(4), pp. 272-277. doi: 10.1080/09286586.2020.1730911

López-Sánchez, G. F., Sánchez-Castillo, S., López-Bueno, R., Pardhan, S., Zauder, R., Skalska, M., Jastrzębska, J., Jastrzębski, Z., Smith, L., 2020. Comparison of physical activity levels in Spanish people with diabetes with and without cataracts. European Journal of Public Health, 30(6). doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa104

Zult, T., Smith, L., Stringer, C., Pardhan, S., 2020. Levels of self-reported and objective physical activity in individuals with age-related macular degeneration. BMC Public Health, 20(1). doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09255-7

Jackson, S. E., Hackett, R. A., Pardhan, S., Smith, L., Steptoe, A., 2019. Association of Perceived Discrimination with Emotional Well-being in Older Adults with Visual Impairment. JAMA Ophthalmology, 137(7), pp. 825-832. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.1230

López Sánchez, G. F., Smith, L., Raman, R., Jaysankar, D., Singh, S., Sapkota, R., Díaz Suárez, A., Pardhan, S., 2019. Physical activity behaviour in people with diabetes residing in India: A cross-sectional analysis. Science and Sports, 34(1), pp. e59-e66. doi: 10.1016/j.scispo.2018.08.005

López-Sánchez, G. F., Smith, L., Zheng, D., Sapkota, R., Yang, L., Chen, Z., Pardhan, S., 2019. Physical activity behaviour in people with diabetes residing in China: A cross-sectional analysis. Science and Sports, 34(3), pp. 178-180. doi: 10.1016/j.scispo.2018.11.004

Smith, L., Jackson, S. E., Pardhan, S., López-Sánchez, G. F., Hu, L., Cao, C., Vancampfort, D., Koyanagi, A., Stubbs, B., Firth, J., Yang, L., 2019. Visual impairment and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in US adolescents and adults: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 9(4). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027267

Smith, L., Koyanagi, A., Pardhan, S., Grabovac, I., Swami, V., Soysal, P., Isik, A., López-Sánchez, G .F., McDermott, D., Yang, L., Jackson, S. E., 2019. Sexual Activity in Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexuality and Disability, 37(4), pp. 475-487. doi: 10.1007/s11195-019-09598-z

Smith, L., Sánchez, G. F. L., Suárez, A. D., Stubbs, B., Dowling, M., Scruton, A., Roberts, J., Johnstone, J., Pardhan, S., 2018. Barriers and facilitators of physical activity in children of a South Asian ethnicity. Sustainability, 10(3). doi: 10.3390/su10030761

Williams, G., Aggio, D., Stubbs, B., Pardhan, S., Gardner, B., Smith, L., 2018. Physical activity levels in children with sensory problems: Cross-sectional analyses from the Millennium Cohort Study. Disability and Health Journal, 11(1), pp. 58-61. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2017.07.002

Smith, L., Timmis, M. A., Pardhan, S., Latham, K., Johnstone, J., Hamer, M., 2017. Physical inactivity in relation to self-rated eyesight: cross-sectional analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 1(1). doi: 10.1136/bmjophth-2016-000046