Cities today face a range of challenges, shocks and stresses from the effects of climate change and growing migrant populations and conflicts, to stressed infrastructure and natural and man-made disasters.
Resilience is what helps cities adapt and transform in the face of these challenges, helping them to prepare for both the expected and the unexpected. Building urban resilience requires looking at a city holistically, understanding the systems that make up the city and the interdependencies and risks they may face. Moreover, urban resilience is the result of the complex system of interrelations and interdependencies of the city with the surrounding environment.
Interrelated topics of research under this theme include climate change adaptation and mitigation, natural and man-made disasters modelling, disaster management, infrastructure vulnerability and resilience, community resilience, resilient urban planning and design.
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Future Cities Research Network (FCRN) in the School of Engineering and the Built Environment, has been awarded £40K for the UK/Turkey joint research project ‘HERALD’.
The total project cost is £80K match funded by the Turkey partner institution and under the British Council-Newton Fund Research Environment Links (UK & Turkey). The full title of the project is ‘HERALD: A Heritage-led Resilience Approach to smart and sustainable urban Development in Turkey’.
Over the next 12 months, HERALD project aims to bring together the research groups, FCRN at our University and the Center for Urban Studies (CUS) at Istanbul Sehir University, to develop long term strategic research partnerships in the domain of heritage-led resilience in cities.
Two partners have developed this interdisciplinary collaboration on Heritage Research, in accordance with the local necessities and emerging themes from international and national research priorities. Istanbul Regional Master Plan, who set priorities for the urban growth towards 2023 with the vision of ‘Unique Istanbul: City of Culture and Newness with its Creative and Liberated Inhabitants’ and, Historic England’s National Policy and Planning briefing 2018.
For a sustainable urban growth, it is vital to understand how heritage is produced, interpreted and understood as it can have profound impact on social and economic activity and decision-making, especially in the context of technology shaping the futures of cities. There is a need to examine the urgent agenda of resilient urban planning for heritage cities, and the lessons to be applied from – and for – tangible and intangible aspects of heritage cities.
The various activities proposed (workshops, field studies in Istanbul and Cambridge, ECR training programme and seminars) under the HERALD project are intended to promote international exchange of knowledge and experiences around novel theories, strategies and methods in resilient informed urban planning and development of smart and sustainable heritage cities in Turkey and the UK. The project will be led by Engineering and the Built Environment’s Dr Lakshmi Priya Rajendran and Dr Nezhapi-Delle Odeleye with the rest of the team to include Dr Alan Coday, Dr Christopher Maidment (both also from EBE) and Dr Zareen Bharucha (from our Global Sustainability Institute).
For more information on the project contact Dr Lakshmi Rajendran.
This article originally appeared in the March 2019 issue of 'First', our Faculty Research Newsletter.
As part of the Newton fund project we have started a Research Network on Twitter, follow @HERALD_UKTURKEY to keep up to date with the project.
Earthquakes are one of the world’s most destructive natural phenomena, causing buildings and roads to collapse and damaging critical infrastructure such as transport, power, logistics, health. ‘Liquefact’ is a 42 month project led by Prof Keith Jones, Head of the Department of Engineering and the Built Environment and supported by partners from across Europe (Italy, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Turkey). This major EU project will explore ways to minimise the effect of earthquake induced ground liquefaction on buildings and critical infrastructure across Europe.
During the 20th century earthquakes caused the deaths of 1.5 million people worldwide; and incurred an estimated economic loss of €75 billion in the last quarter alone. A large part of Europe is at risk from earthquakes, with the most seismically active areas being located in Italy, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus and Portugal. Over the past decade, earthquakes proved to be the deadliest of all European disasters, with almost 19,000 fatalities and direct economic losses of approximately €29 billion.
Whilst the general threats posed by earthquake events in Europe are known, the specific threats posed to buildings and critical infrastructure by ground liquefaction as a consequence of an earthquake event are not. Liquefaction occurs when the ground liquefies as a consequence of earth shake and this undermines the foundations of buildings and infrastructure resulting in total or partial collapse. The ‘Liquefact’ project will explore the impact of liquefaction events across Europe and develop an analysis and planning tool to allow regional authorities to better plan for earthquake disasters.
Improving resilience to earthquake disasters involves identifying the specific risks and threats (vulnerabilities) posed by earthquake events; identifying suitable interventions that mitigate these vulnerabilities (improve resistance); and enhance speed of recovery (improve resilience) to return to life as normal after an event. The speed of recovery to life as normal is in turn enhanced or inhibited by the adaptive capacity of the community and region to respond to the event. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which local physical, social, economic and governance systems can be activated to support a community after a disaster event. Whilst physical interventions required to improve an individual buildings resistance and resilience to earthquakes are well known; the collective interventions required to improve the resilience and adaptive capacity of the community are less well studied.
‘Liquefact’ will develop a holistic understanding of the relationship between vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity of communities recovering from an earthquake event.
The project will develop a hazard map of potential liquefaction zones across Europe. Case studies in Italy, Slovenia and Turkey will identify a methodology for assessing local vulnerabilities to liquefaction events and examine the effectiveness of various technical, social and economic mitigation methods to improve community resilience and identify the adaptive capacity of the various regions.
The outputs from the project will inform technical design standards for buildings in earthquake zones and provide the tools for better disaster planning thus improving the resilience of their communities thus reducing mortality rates and economic costs associated with such events.
This article originally appeared in our 'First' - Annual Research Review 2015.
During the week of 3 October 2016 the Liquefact project team, based in our Department of Engineering and the Built Environment (EBE), facilitated and attend the second project consortium meeting with partners from across Europe at the University of Ferrara, Italy.
The week commenced with a conference and stakeholder workshop attended by over 200 participants and focused on specific research and industry gaps regarding the susceptibility assessment and mitigation of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction Disasters (EILDs).
There were presentations from a number of prominent experts in the field drawing on the experiences of seismic events including those in Christchurch, New Zealand (2011) and the Emilia Romagna region in Italy (2012 and 2016). Further partnership meetings cemented key working relationships across Europe to enhance successful project delivery over the coming months and ensure best practice in research and innovation.
Liquefact is a collaborative European H2020 funded project involving 11 different partners from across the UK, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Norway and Turkey. The project aims to address the mitigation of risks to EILD events in European communities with a holistic approach, dealing not only with the resistance of structures to EILD events, but also with the resilience of the collective urban community in relation to their quick recovery from an occurrence.
This article originally appeared in the October 2016 issue of 'First', our Faculty Research Newsletter.
Following on from her award from the Royal Academy of Engineering (RAEng) earlier in the year, resulting in a £20K grant to lead a collaborative project with Brazilian Partners at São Paulo University and Campinas University, Dr Maryam Imani held a joint workshop at the University of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil.
Dr Maryam Imani, from our Department of Engineering & the Built Environment, ran the workshop titled ‘Enhanced Water Quality Management’ and mainly focused on various aspects of the water quality management in Brazil. The aim of the workshop was to deliver the outcomes of the WQRGIS (Towards Water Quality Resilience) and WASP (Water-quality Assessment via Sensing and Predictions) projects on surface water quality management in São Carlos. The workshop was followed by a visit to the two main Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) in São Carlos.
This article originally appeared in the September 2017 issue of 'First', our Faculty Research Newsletter.
Academics from our Department of Engineering & the Built Environment have received over £62K funding from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).
The project, entitled ‘RV-DSS: An industry-friendly resilience-based interdependency assessment tool – case study North Argyll’, is led by Principle Investigator Dr Donya Hajializadeh, along with Dr Maryam Imani, Dr Carlos Jimenez-Bescos and Dr Lakshmi Priya Rajendran, all from our Department of Engineering & the Built Environment. Joining our team are partners from Transport Scotland, Scottish Water, SSE and Atkins.
The funding call was part of the Environmental Risks to Infrastructure Innovation Programme (ERIIP), which is a collaboration between the NERC and infrastructure owners, operators, policy-makers and regulators to enable the UK infrastructure sector to use environmental science to identify, quantify and manage environmental risks, such as those from extreme weather and climate change.
The project is for 6-months and aims to refine the RV-DSS to better suit industry needs. The current version of RV-DSS has been recently developed for a numerical network, to assess failure propagation due to infrastructure interdependencies by analysing network’s resilience and vulnerability. This project aims to adopt this model to a real case study in Scotland, North Argyll, to model interdependencies of Water, Transport and Energy networks and provide resilience and vulnerability-informed management strategies for these networks.
In order to expand the application of the RV-DSS to a wider range of case-studies, guidelines will be produced to provide a detailed procedure to build a case study for RV-DSS. In this project, the developed RV-DSS will be refined to an industry-friendly tool that can manage future uncertainties in short-term and long-term infrastructure investment decisions for all industry partners. It provides means of updating current integrated infrastructure design, maintenance and operation methods.
The total funding for the project is £62,339, and it will run from Nov 2017 until April 2018.
This article originally appeared in the November 2017 issue of 'First', our Faculty Research Newsletter.
Wei, R., Du, Y.G., Zou, L. and Li, D.W. 2018. Statistical analysis of geometrical parameters of corroded reinforcement. International Journal of Computational Physics Series, 1(1), pp.191-196, doi:10.29167/A1I1P191-196
Li, D.W., Wei, R., Du, Y.G., Guan, X.T. and Zhou, M.Y., 2017. Measurement methods of geometrical parameters and amount of corrosion of steel Bar. International Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 154, pp.921-927
Liu, J.Z., Ba, M.F., Du, Y.G., He, Z.M. and Chen, J.B., 2016. Effects of Chloride ions on Carbonation Rate of Hardened Cement Paste by X-ray CT Techniques. International Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 122, pp.619-627
Kang, J.T., Wang, X.F., Yang, J., Du, Y.G., 2013. Strengthening double curved arch bridges by using extrados section augmentation method. International Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 41, pp.165-174
Esfahlani, S.S. and ESG Ltd. 2014. Patents application Number: P11826 GB. "Fire and Bullet proof laminated glazing”.
Esfahlani, S.S., Shirvani, H., Shirvani, A., Nwaubani, S., Mebrahtu, H. and Chirwa, C., 2013. Hexagonal honeycomb cell optimisation by way of meta-model techniques. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 18(3), pp.264-275.
Esfahlani, S.S., Shirvani, H., Nwaubani, S., Shirvani, A. and Mebrahtu, H., 2013. Comparative study of honeycomb optimization using Kriging and radial basis function. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, 3(3).
Esfahlani, S. S., Shirvani, H., Shirvani, A. and Nwaubani, S., 2011. Design attributes for geometry optimization process of thin walled honeycomb structures. In: ASME Proceedings, 21st Reliability, Stress Analysis, and Failure Prevention Conference. Washington DC, USA, pp.899-908.
Jones, K., Desai, A., Brosnan, N., Cooper, J. and Ali, F., 2017. Built asset management climate change adaptation model. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 8(3). Doi: 10.1108/IJDRBE-07-2016-0032
Jones, K., Bartolucci, A. and Hiscock, K., 2017. The role of FM in disaster resilience: Integrating the Sendai Framework into disaster risk management. In: EUROFM (European Facility Management Network. 16th research symposium EFMC. Madrid, Spain. 25-28 April 2017. pp. 203-213.
Butt, T.E., Jones, K.G., Savic, D., Gorse, C.A., Hudson, J.P. and Paul, P., 2016. Built Environments and ‘Direct’ Energy Consumption – a conceptual methodology framework to facilitate delivery of the climate change act, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management. May 2016, 15(5), pp.1155-1171. Available at: http://omicron.ch.tuiasi.ro/EEMJ/pdfs/accepted/122_263_Butt_12.pdf
Mulville, M., Jones, K.G., Huebner, G. and Powell-Greig, J., 2016. Energy-saving occupant behaviours in offices: change strategies. Building Research and Information, 45, pp.861-874. Available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2016.1212299
Jones, K., Desai, A., Brosnan, N., Cooper, J. and Ali, F., 2016. Built Asset Management Climate Change Adaptation Model. In: CIB World Building Congress. Intelligent Built Environment for life, Tampere, 2016. Available at: https://tutcris.tut.fi/portal/files/6187048/WBC16_Vol_5.pdf
Jones, K.G., Mulville, M., Desai, A. and Jones, A., 2015. Asset management using a hybrid backcasting / forecasting approach. Facilities, 33(11/12), pp.701-715.
Butt, T.E., Francis, T.J., Greenwood, D., Jones, K.G. and Nasir, A.M., 2015. The role of BIM in tackling obsolescence, climate change, and sustainability. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, 149. ISSN 1743-3509. Doi:10.2495/BIM150451
Bhuiyan, S.I., Jones, K. and Wanigarathn, N., 2015. An approach to Sustainable Refurbishment of Existing Buildings. ARCOM, Lincoln, 2015. Available at: www.arcom.ac.uk/-docs/proceedings/2bdf2ceb7a32e4b6e197c75ce335bd3c.pdf
Butt, T., Camilleri, M., Paul, P., and Jones, K.G., 2015. Obsolescence types and the built environment – definitions and implications. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 14(1), pp.20-39. ISSN 1474-6778 (Print), 1478-7466 (Online). Doi:10.1504/IJESD.2015.066896
Jones, K.G., Desai, A., Mulville, M. and Jones, A., 2014. Employing back casting principles for the formation of long term built asset management strategies - A theoretical approach. CIB Facilities Management Conference. Technical University of Denmark. 21-23 May 2014. Available at: http://arro.anglia.ac.uk/581945/
Carbonari, G. and Jones, K.G., 2014. Sustainable FM through Building Information Modelling. 13th EuroFM Research Symposium. Berlin, 2014.
Huebner, G., Cooper, J., Moon, A., Maras, P. and Jones, K., 2014. Barriers towards reducing domestic energy consumption – findings of a study among social housing tenants. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 13(4).
Umeokafor, N., Isaac, D., Jones, K. and Umeadi, B., 2014. Enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations in Nigeria: An exploration. European Scientific Journal, 3, pp.93-104. ISSN 1857-7881 (Print), 1857-7431 (Online).
Nikolaou, I., Evangelinos, K., Jones, K.G. and Allan, S., 2014. Environmental Management Practices and Engineering Science: A Review and Typology for Future Research. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Journal, 10(2). Doi:10.1002/ieam.1504
Butt, T., Jones, K.G., and Heyward, C., 2014. Sustainability of and Obsolescence in the Built Environment - Two Contrary Notions. Sustainability: The Journal of Record, 7(2), pp.116-122.
Pandey, D.S., Pan, I., Das, S., Leahy, J.J. and Kwapinski, W., 2015. Multi-gene genetic programming based predictive models for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier, Bioresource Technology, 179, pp.524–533. (Citation: 23, IF: 5.651). Featured on the cover page of the journal, with image.
Pan, I., Pandey, D.S. and Das, S., 2013. Global solar irradiation prediction using a multi-gene genetic programming approach, AIP. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy (JRSE), 5, 063129. (Citation: 12, IF: 1.51). Most accessed articles in 2014 from the JRSE.
Achour, N., Pascale, F., Price, A.D.F., Ackisari, K., Miyajima, M., Yoshida, M. and Polverino, F., 2016. Learning lessons from the 2011 Van Earthquake to enhance healthcare surge capacity in Turkey. Environmental Hazards, 15 (1).
Castelluccio, R., Pascale, F., Fumo, M. and Polverino, F., 2016. Innovative methods on territorial vulnerability study for the preparation of emergency plans. Tema: Technology, Engineering, Materials and Architecture, 2 (2). pp. 62-71.
Imani, M., Pascale, F., Kapogiannis, G. and Jones, K., 2016. Hospital resilience-informed decision-making: uncertainties and interdependencies. Proceedings of Integrated Design International Conference (ID@50). Bath, England.
Achour, N., Pantzartzis, E., Pascale, F. and Price, A.D.F., 2015. Integration of resilience and sustainability: from theory to application. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 6(3), pp.347-362. doi: 10.1108/IJDRBE-05-2013-0016.
Achour, N., Pascale, F., Soetanto, R. and Price, A.D.F., 2015. Healthcare emergency planning and management to major disasters in the UK. International Journal of Emergency Management, 11(1). doi: 10.1080/17477891.2016.1139539.
Pascale, F., Achour, N., Price, A.D.F. and Polverino, F., 2014. Evaluation of factors and approaches affecting emergency department space planning. Facilities, 32(13/14), pp.761-785. doi: 10.1108/F-09-2012-0073.
Achour, N., Miyajima, M., Pascale, F. and Price, A.D.F., 2014. Hospital resilience to natural hazards: classification and performance of utilities. Disaster Prevention and Management, 23(1), pp.40-52. doi: 10.1108/DPM-03-2013-0057.
Zuddas, F., 2019 (contracted, forthcoming). The university as a settlement principle. The territorialisation of knowledge in 1970s Italy (working title). Research in Architecture Series. Oxon and New York: Routledge.
Puddu, S., Tattara, M., Zuddas, F., (eds.) 2017. Territori della Conoscenza. Un Progetto per Cagliari e la sua Università. Macerata: Quodlibet.
Puddu, S., Zuddas, F., 2012. Made in Taiwan. Architecture and Urbanism in the Innovation Economy. Trento and Barcelona: LIStLab.
Zuddas, F., 2018 (forthcoming). The Project of Universality In Chipperfield, D., Duplantier, M., et al. (ed.) 2018 HEC Campus: evolution of a model. Zurich: Park Books.
Zuddas, F. 2018. Culture for Resistance. C3, 395, pp.14-21.
Zuddas, F., 2017. The Idea of the Università. AA Files, 75, pp.119-131.
Zuddas, F., 2017. L’Università come Principio Insediativo. In Puddu, S., Tattara, M., Zuddas, F., (eds.) 2017. Territori della Conoscenza. Un Progetto per Cagliari e la sua Università. Macerata: Quodlibet, pp.10-49.
Zuddas, F., 2015. Pretentious equivalence. De Carlo, Woods and mat-building. Festival of Architecture Magazine, 34, pp.45-65.