Dr Enrico Dippenaar

Senior Lecturer in Emergency Medicine

Faculty:Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care

School:Allied Health

Location: Chelmsford

Areas of Expertise: Allied and public health , Paramedic science

Research Supervision:Yes

Enrico is an experienced paramedic and academic who champions out-of-hospital emergency care.



Enrico started his career in emergency services as a Firefighter in Cape Town, South Africa. Through his initial training and contact with emergency care, an immediate interest grew towards paramedicine.

While working as a Firefighter, Enrico's passion to become a paramedic led him to complete further tertiary education and attain the highest clinical level within paramedicine. He worked as an Emergency Care Practitioner and Firefighter for many years until an opportunity presented itself to him in Dubai. There he managed clinic operations for a leading international private healthcare group (Mediclinic) at the prestigious Atlantis resort on the Palm Jumeirah. Further opportunities were presented as he became a medical and rescue flight paramedic for the United Arab Emirates national helicopter search and rescue service. He joined Anglia Ruskin University as a full-time academic for Paramedic Science.

Spoken Languages

  • English
  • Afrikaans

Research interests

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Paramedicine
  • Out-of-Hospital Emergency Care
  • Healthcare Systems and Regulations
  • Medical Ethics 

Enrico focuses his interests primarily around emergency medicine in the out-of-hospital setting. These include structures, processes and outcomes in emergency care that are clinical and non-clinical. Matching the needs of the community with the resources available to do the most for the most.

Areas of research supervision

  • Developing and validating an MRI and patient factors-based scoring system to predict the operative challenges associated with minimally invasive Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) for patients with rectal cancer.
  • Open and distance learning as a design and delivery method of emergency medical training.
  • A cross-sectional investigation of the management of winter sports injuries in secondary schools within the Gauteng province of South Africa.


Enrico involved himself with tutoring and mentoring colleagues from the start of his emergency services career. He taught and examined on a part-time basis at college and university levels in South Africa. He is also a seasoned American Heart Association instructor for all their life support programmes. He now primarily teaches on the Paramedic Science course at ARU, leading research and major project modules.


  • PgCert: Learning and Teaching (Higher Education), ARU
  • PhD: Emergency Medicine, UCT
  • MScMed: Emergency Medicine, UCT
  • Dip: Fire Technology, SAESI
  • BSc: Emergency Medical Care, CPUT
  • NDip: Emergency Medical Care, CPUT

Memberships, editorial boards

  • College of Paramedics
  • British Association for Immediate Care
  • Royal College of Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency Medicine Society of South Africa
  • Emergency Care Society of South Africa
  • International Association of Flight & Critical Care Paramedics
  • Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
  • Editorial Board Member for International Paramedic Practice

Selected recent publications

Wheeler, B., Dippenaar, E., 2020. Physiological and psychological components of paramedic wellbeing. International Paramedic Practice, 10:2, pp. 33-40.

Dippenaar, E., 2020, An epidemiological study of a patient population, triage category allocation, and principal diagnosis within the emergency centres of a private healthcare group in the Emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Nursing Open, 7:5, pp. 1468-1474.

Reynolds, L., Dippenaar, E., 2020. EMS Around the World: A Growing Career in the U.K. EMS World, 49:5, pp. 10-11.

Dippenaar, E., 2020. Reliability and validity of three international triage systems within a private health-care group in the Middle East. International Emergency Nursing, 51:100870, pp. 1-6.

Dippenaar, E., 2020. Triage System Performance: consistence and accuracy in the emergency centre. Journal of Paramedic Practice, 12:3, pp. 94-9.

Dippenaar, E., 2019. Emergency centre triage category allocations and their associated patient flow timeframes within a private healthcare group in the Middle East. Nursing Open, 6:4, pp. 1399-1403.

Dippenaar, E., 2019. Triage systems around the world: a historical evolution. International Paramedic Practice, 9:3, pp. 61-6.

Raphael, R., Dippenaar, E., 2019. An out-of-hospital perspective on hyperventilation syndrome. International Paramedic Practice, 9:2, pp. 41-6.

Dippenaar, E., Wallis, L., 2019. Pre-hospital intercostal chest drains in South Africa: a modified Delphi study. African Journal of Emergency Medicine, 9:2, pp. 91-5.

Dippenaar, E., 2019. Paramedicine for our communities. International Paramedic Practice, 9:1, p. 2.

Reynolds L., Dippenaar, E., 2018 How to search the scientific literature. EMS World, 47:5, pp. 29-31.

Dippenaar, E., Bruijns, S., 2016. Triage is easy, said no triage nurse ever. International Emergency Nursing, 29:1, pp. 1-2.

Recent presentations and conferences

Dippenaar, E., 2019. Students and Research: The One without the Other. Trauma Care Conference 2019 – Student Pre-Hospital Programme, United Kingdom.

Dippenaar, E., 2018. Stressful feedback post paramedic simulation training. Assessment in Higher Education conference, United Kingdom.

Dippenaar, E., Gangaram, P., Alinier, G., 2018. Assessment of the Wong-Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale’s Inter-Rater Reliability when applied to standardised adult patients by paramedics in Qatar: a pilot study. College of Paramedics (UK) National Conference.

Dippenaar, E., 2018. Paramedicine across continents: A paramedic’s lived experience. College of Paramedics (UK) National Conference.

Carley, S., Stander, M., Wylie, C., Evans, K., Dippenaar, E., 2018. Major Incident Management. Brave African Discussions in Emergency Medicine #badEMfest18 conference, South Africa.

Dippenaar E. (2014) Identifying the role of pre-hospital intercostal chest drains in South Africa. Emergency Care Society of South Africa conference, South Africa.