Policing and Criminal Justice BSc (Hons)

Full-time undergraduate (3 years, 4 years with foundation year)

Chelmsford

September

Overview

Thinking of joining the police or working in the wider criminal justice sector? Get first-hand experience of the day-to-day life of a criminal justice professional before you join up.

Full description

Careers

We work with employers to make sure you graduate with the knowledge, skills and abilities they need. They help us review what we teach and how we teach it – and they offer hands-on, practical opportunities to learn through work-based projects, internships or placements.

The skills and knowledge you gain on this course will prepare you for work with many criminal justice organisations, such as the police, the prison service, local government and the security industry.

Our work-based learning module ‘Working in the Criminal Justice System’ will let you experience first-hand what it is like to work for one of these services, giving you a valuable insight into their working cultures and practices.

Modules & assessment

Level 3 (foundation year)

  • Foundation in Law and Policing
    This module will provide students with the necessary skills to begin studying at level 4 in courses related to Law, Policing and Criminology. Students will be introduced to the core skills necessary to succeed in higher education, including thinking critically, researching and referencing appropriately, demonstrating appropriate numeracy and ICT skills, and communicating effectively verbally and in writing. Students will also be introduced to specific concepts related to their degree programmes including an introduction to the English legal system, business law, criminal law and the criminal justice system and ethics. Real-world examples of the law in action will be highlighted, and students will practice applying the law to case studies. The module is made up of the following eight constituent elements: Interactive Learning Skills and Communication (ILSC); Information Communication Technology (ICT); Critical Thinking; Composition and Style; Ethics; Fundamentals of Law; Business Law; Criminal Law.

Year one, core modules

  • Introduction to Policing
    This module will develop your understanding of the origins of the modern Police Service and the nature of Police work in the broadest sense, including the social and political environment from which modern policing emerged and in which it currently operates. You will learn how and why the Police Service developed, the cultural and political ethos behind the service, and the legal and ethical frameworks that inform the sector. You will also study the demands placed on Police Forces and their officers, staff and volunteers, including potential developments in the future, and critically consider how the internet and digital media will effect changes to the policing landscape by facilitating the commission of existing crime types. You will also consider emerging types of new criminal activity, and responses that may be required from law enforcers to combat these, grounding this academically through a critical engagement with the debates and controversies that surround policing. To support this module and your continuing studies, you will develop and maintain a reflective learning log that will be used as the basis of tutorial work and your formative assessment. Throughout the Semester you will be assessed via a portfolio of tasks that will provide opportunities for formative feedback, including traditional assessment methods such as a short essay, in-class test and a presentation, as well as maintaining a blog as a reflective diary. You will be taught by weekly lecture and seminar.
  • Criminology and the Criminal Justice System
    This module integrates theoretical approaches to criminology with an understanding of the workings of the criminal justice system, allowing you to contextualise theoretical understandings with your practical application. You will explore key questions at the core of criminology, such as whether offenders choose to commit crime, or whether they are driven to crime by structural forces outside their individual control. You will consider whether social, biological or psychological factors can help explain crime, and whether offenders can be regarded as ‘rational’ in their approach to offending. You will also explore sociological approaches to crime and consider whether some individuals, groups or offences are more likely to be called criminal than others. You will analyse the major contentions of and disagreements between each of these approaches, and you will learn to use theories to illuminate contemporary debates and social problems. You will be introduced to key components of the criminal justice system, in particular the courts, the prison system, the probation service and the youth justice system, and learn about restorative justice and its application within the criminal justice system. The assignments reflect the integrated nature of the module, asking you to demonstrate both theoretical understanding and the practical implications of such approaches for the criminal justice system. The assessments will include designing a poster or infographic, visually demonstrating your understanding of the purposes of the criminal justice system and its relationship to our understandings of why people offend; an essay on theoretical criminological approaches, and a briefing report on a particular aspect of criminal justice, critically evaluating it in the light of theoretical understandings of crime and deviance.
  • Policing Practice
    This module will give you a basic introduction to the skills used in police work. It will give you a real insight into the day to day work of policing and the skills and knowledge required, and will also directly address employability and joining the police force. The module will introduce you to practical ‘real world’ issues for the Police Service and individual officers within it. It builds on issues and material studied in the module ‘Introduction to Policing’, which focused on the more general evolutionary, developmental and cultural issues that set the scene for modern policing. This module will cover the work environment for a warranted officer, including eligibility, entry requirements, initial training, conditions of service, restrictions on private life and professional standards. It will also provide an awareness of possible career development opportunities. You will then move on to examine practical policing skills and issues, from attending incidents, scene management and crime scene awareness, to arrest, interviewing and detention; public order policing; managing and using intelligence; and the practical and legal issues around stop, search and entry; dealing with major incidents; the principles of investigation; and a specific focus on public protection, violence, abuse and neglect. You will also explore preparing for prosecution and court. Your weekly lectures will be supplemented by smaller group seminars, where you may be asked to prepare material in order to contribute to effective learning. There will also be a number of practical exercises and regular contributions from serving officers as guest lecturers. your assessments for this module will comprise three pieces of coursework: a report of 3,000 words, a Personal Development Plan of 500 words and a Reflective Commentary.
  • Policing Ethics
    This module will introduce you to the ethical issues that might be encountered within the field of policing and the wider criminal justice system. You will examine key principles including accountability, fairness, integrity and respect, and look at the corresponding standards of professional behaviour and their development and application within the UK police force, with particular reference to ethical issues that have specific importance for policing, such as procedural justice, police conduct, confidentiality, corruption, and the use of force. You will explore the foundational ethical questions, including accountability, ideas of democratic policing, the ‘Peelian’ principles, and the ongoing debates about the purpose of policing and who is being policed. You will also look at ideas of professionalism and explore police culture. Through an examination of actual practice and the drivers behind change, you will consider the causes and effects of prejudice, the social problems that can arise from discrimination within and without the police service and criminal justice system itself, and the theoretical and legislative responses that have been developed in response to these issues. How do general social and academic ideas and legal frameworks impact upon the work of the police and public services? How have such services responded with initiatives of their own? You will attend a one hour lecture and one hour seminar each week for the whole semester, and your assessment will consist of an essay and a case study report.
  • Basic Criminalistics
    Criminalistics is the core discipline of forensic science; in many uses, especially North America, it's synonymous with forensic science. The study is built on one basic premise: that every contact or action leaves some trace (Locard's Principle). As scientific methodologies have improved over the years, so the nature of what constitutes a trace has changed considerably. This module will introduce you to the main categories of trace evidence (finger and other body prints, fibres, hairs, glass and paint fragments, impressions of tools, gun discharge residues, and body fluids) and will emphasise the importance of rigorous crime scene management and proper methods of evidence recovery. You'll also learn about recent developments in enhanced evidence recovery, and evaluate the relative evidential value of various kinds of recovered trace material. This will lead on to a brief introduction to the statistical interpretation of such evidence.

Year two, core modules

  • Working in Criminal Justice
    This module will give you the opportunity to experience working life in the Criminal Justice sector, preparing you for the transition from education to work in a number of ways: identifying your skills and aptitudes in relation to employment; giving you an insight into the working cultures and practices of organisations within the criminal justice sector; allowing you to explore potential careers that would be relevant with a degree in Policing and Criminal Justice. You will explore how work and learning interact, which will encourage self-managed learning and also increase your employability by improving your knowledge of the sector, your self-reliance and confidence. There will be two models of work placement. Firstly, if you already have a role with the CJS, whether paid or unpaid, you will be able to use this as your placement. For example, you may be a Special Constable, PSCO or volunteer for a charity working in this sector. Secondly, you may organise an opportunity for yourself, if you have a particular interest or contacts in an organisation. You will be provided with support to arrange this by the module tutor. You will be required to undertake 70 hours of activity over two semesters in an appropriate placement and, along with your allocated supervisor and/or module tutor, you will draw up a placement proposal outlining your expected duties, hours of work and expected outcomes. You will keep a reflective diary outlining your activities and learning from the experience and this will be assessed, along with a report on an aspect of your organisation or role that must be agreed with the module tutor. You will also be expected to give a presentation outlining the ways in which your employability has developed over the course of the module. You will be supported throughout this by fortnightly workshops and lectures.
  • Researching Policing
    Evidence-based policing relies on 'strong' evidence, but what is evidence and how do we decide how strong it is? How is it created? What are the different types? Is it ethical? This 'hands-on' module will allow you to develop practical skills and knowledge and not only understand evidence-based policing but also conduct and evaluate research in a wide range of social and criminal justice settings. You will carry out and present a piece of qualitative research and critically evaluate a study using quantitative methods of analysis. Your teaching will focus on the development of evaluative skills and practical competence in both qualitative and quantitative methods, giving you the kind of understanding that can only be gained through personal experience. It will also enhance your ability to critically assess published research findings and train you to select and apply appropriate methods in dissertations or projects as well as in your future employment. Your assessment will comprise a 2,000 word research report and a 15 minute presentation, and you will be taught by a weekly lecture and seminar.
  • Evidence-Based Policing
    Evidence-Based policing as a concept is not new: it draws on the same principles as the medical profession, in which doctors make decisions on how to treat patients based on the most up-to-date evidence. However it is widely accepted that policing and police practices as a whole are not based on rigorous evidence. Due to growing demand and financial pressures Evidence-Based Policing has become an attractive option for police agencies with its promise of using limited resources more efficiently and effectively by focusing on those strategies and tactics that reduce crime. This module will give you an overview of the 'rise' of Evidence-Based Policing, and a theoretical understanding of Evidence-Based Policing by allowing you to explore its three key principles: Targeting, tracking, and testing. You will discover what 'evidence' is by taking part in an in-depth discussion and an analysis of recent experiments on 'hotspots' policing and the use of body-worn video. You will also explore the steps agencies can take to embed Evidence-Based Policing in organisations and the challenges they face. You will be taught by weekly lecture and seminar, and assessed through an essay examining the implementation and effectiveness of Evidence-Based Policing and a case study report evaluating a research project.

Year two, optional modules

  • Understanding Crime through the Media
    Media representations of crime, law and order have always been a matter of public interest, as well as debate amongst people involved in the criminal justice system. Most people have limited experience of the criminal justice system, and the way the media treats crime has important implications for the public perception of crime and its management. Should crime always be newsworthy? How objective is the media presentation of crime? Is crime reporting concerned only with issues of good and bad, justice and the law? You will explore the ways in which media shapes our perception of crime and policing and be provided with an overview of the theoretical perspectives on media within criminology. In addition you will explore the construction of crime news, the role of politics and ideology and the concept of "moral panics". You will also examine how the police are represented in the media, and examine ways of analysing available statistics on criminal activity, and the fear of crime and its relationship to the media representation of crime. Finally, you will evaluate how the fear of crime in the United Kingdom has been shaped by media reports. You will be taught in lectures and seminars, and assessed via an in-class presentation (10 min) and an essay (2000 words) that builds on the case presented in class.
  • Resilience and Emergency Management
    Bringing together all the skills you've learned on the Public Service Foundation Degree course, this module will task you with identifying and understanding how the emergency services prepare for and operate at major disasters. You'll look at the ways government and emergency services prepare for and react to major disasters, and consider the advantages and difficulties of the multi-agency approach. Working in teams, you'll solve problems and come up with innovative preparations for, and take part in, major disaster exercises. You'll need to take a reflexive and critical view on the work of government and the emergency services to identify strengths and weaknesses in the current preparation for disasters.
  • Policing Vulnerability
    National policing priorities are increasingly focused on harm, risk and vulnerability. This shift has come about as a response to several factors, including austerity, changes to demand and the types of crime committed, the growing crisis in mental health and the responses to that, and also to the rise of evidence-based policing and the categorisation and measurement of harm. In Policing Vulnerability, you will examine the nature of ‘vulnerability’ in the context of policing and the criminal justice system. You will compare definitions of vulnerability, and risk factors for victimisation and criminalisation. You will examine policy, legislation and guidance around the treatment of vulnerability, including in areas where rights can clash. You will then explore in depth a number of particular current areas, such as digitally facilitated crimes and the policing of mental illness. The assessment is a single case study of police response to vulnerability, to include an assessment of the legislation and guidance around a particular area of vulnerability, and a critical analysis of a force response to an incident.
  • Cybercrime and Policing
    Cybercrimes are becoming increasingly prevalent in western society, and their policing and control progressively problematic. You will have the opportunity to explore the risks that modern cybercrimes pose to individuals, organisations and the nation state, and examine how authorities both locally and transnationally have attempted to police new digital patterns of criminality. The module is taught in two, discreet halves, with the first exploring the development of new ‘cyber-dependent’ crimes that exist solely as a product of new internet technologies. The second half will examine the emergence of ‘cyber-enabled crimes’ involving the reconstitution of established and traditional crimes such as human trafficking, organised crime, terrorism and hate crime that been irrevocably changed by virtue of their online ‘digitisation’. Within each of the topics covered in the module, you will have the chance to explore cutting edge cyber-crime case studies against a backdrop of the challenges that authorities have faced when attempting to police these crimes both locally and transnationally. In addition, you will examine the impact of the Dark Web and Tor Network, and how these continue to evade traditional policing styles. You will learn about the facilitation of radicalisation and terrorism, othering and stigmatisation, transnational crime, migration and human trafficking and the policing and security strategies that have been developed to combat and prevent them. You will examine the topics within online digital settings, which will provide you with insights that will deepen and complement other taught modules that adopt an ‘offline’ approach when investigating crime and policing. You will achieve an understanding of a wide range of cybercrimes, their sociological and criminological conceptualisation and the key modes of policing, punishment and control designed to reduce and contain their risk. The module is taught by lecture/seminar format using computer-based work for seminars. You will be assessed via a formative and summative assessment using an essay-based format.
  • Victims and Violence
    There are many forms and conceptions of violence, as well as a variety of motivations and meanings for it, yet it is often conceived as a single phenomenon. In addition, what constitutes victimhood and victimisation is contested at every stage of our legal system. In this module, you will approach the study of violence and violent victimisation through a variety of theoretical explanations, including cultural, theoretical, criminal and legal, psychological, medical and biological. You will explore different expressions of violence, and the measures employed by the criminal justice system to define, criminalise and regulate them. You will examine situations in which aggressive behaviours arise - from everyday assaults to homicide - from a range of situational contexts such as vengeance, mass media, alcohol and drugs, loss of control, psychopathy, cultural settings, social context and gender stereotypes. You will also evaluate the impact that the effects of aggression and violence can have on victims, witnesses and society. Through the study of victimology, you will explore how we have come to recognise the relationships between victims and offenders, as well as interactions between victims and the criminal justice process, contrasting offender motives with concepts such as victim-precipitation, victim-blaming, victim reliability, and 'ideal' victim stereotypes. You will attend a one hour lecture and one hour seminar each week for the whole semester, and be assessed through a group presentation and individual report, plus a 2000 word essay.
  • Leadership in Policing and Criminal Justice
    On this module you will develop your critical view of the Criminal Justice Sector in a broad sense, by studying current perspectives on leadership and management in the public sector and how these relate to the ever-changing political, social and economic contexts in which they operate. You will discuss the importance of effective management and leadership, and the impact of these on an organisation, starting by investigating leadership and management as concepts and tracking their history and development, before considering how they currently impact on the public sector as a whole and on individual organisations such as the police and how this is related to contemporary issues and debates. You will also consider debates about equality and diversity relevant to leadership. You will attend weekly lectures and seminars, and your assessment will comprise an in-class test, in which you will demonstrate your understanding of some of the key issues and topics, and a case study of a particular aspect of leadership and/management in the criminal justice sector.
  • Digital Policing
    This module will provide you with a solid foundation in a broad range of current digital issues across policing, for example the growing threat of terrorism and organised crime, and issues of cyber security and online fraud. It will help you to understand the key elements of these issues in terms of digital intelligence and investigation, and will provide both context and knowledge. In particular you will focus on Big Data and the implications and opportunities for intelligence and investigation as well as consideration of concepts of ethics, privacy and consent. Concentrating on academic theory and wider reading across other sectors, you will discover how this is then applied to and practised in law enforcement. Through the combined elements of the module you will gain an insight into some of the ‘art of the possible’ for future police practice, as well as the changing nature of the threat, harm and risk, and the impact of technological change on the society being policed. The early insights will be invaluable as you begin your career and start to move into leadership roles. The module will be taught by lectures and seminars, and assessed by a structured portfolio. Due to the fast pace of change in this area the module will be regularly updated and refreshed in line with developments.

Year three, core modules

  • Major Project
    The individual Major Project will allow you to undertake a substantial piece of individual research, focused on a topic relevant to your specific course. Your topic will be assessed for suitability to ensure sufficient academic challenge and satisfactory supervision by an academic member of staff. The project will require you to identify/formulate problems and issues, conduct research, evaluate information, process data, and critically appraise and present your findings/creative work. You should arrange and attend regular meetings with your project supervisor, to ensure that your project is closely monitored and steered in the right direction.
  • Politics and Public Service
    On this module, you'll address the ideas that lie behind political approaches to public services and explore the relationship between these ideas and policy. You'll also examine the development of ideological approaches to public services, focusing on some broad approaches, namely, Welfarism, Neoliberalism and 'modernisation', each of which results in the eventual application of political ideology.
  • Policing Policy
    On this module, you'll concentrate on how national, local and internal politics operate in the organisation of the police service in England and Wales. The police service exhibits a wide range of groups that represent competing ways of seeing the development of this service. You'll seek to identify these groups, to identify their roles and to assess their relative importance in relation to the internal and external political environment of the public services. In this respect, conflicts in public services will be a theme of the module. In particular the focus is on up-to-date reporting on the police service by government, interested parties, key stake holders and representative bodies and how these reports follow a pattern that leads to public service development. The module will be taught by lectures, seminars and workshops throughout the semester. You will be required to give an oral presentation to the whole class group based on the materials used in preparation for the written assessment. Where possible and appropriate, guests from the public service will be invited to attend oral presentations to create a realistic conference environment. Students will also be required to submit a written case study of the operation of public services policy in relation to the police service. This case study will make reference to the various groups studied in the module and to some selected examples of issues or conflicts that have arisen or are currently taking place in the police service.

Year three, optional modules

  • Investigating Sexual Offences
    Sex offending has become a major concern for governments, academics, policy analysts and pressure groups around the world, yet in the British criminal justice system the issues remain poorly understood, unsatisfactorily recognised and the offences inadequately condemned. In this module you will examine the way certain sexual activities have come to be defined and categorised as sex crimes and how particular definitions generate specific legal responses and treatments. You will learn to recognise specific types of sexual offending, and study theories about motivations and consequences, as well as examining the issues from the perspectives of offenders, victims, society and the law. Rape ‘myths’ and ‘stereotypes’ will be discussed, and juxtaposed against case attrition throughout the criminal justice process. You will also examine the potential impact of the media, and how advances in internet technologies contribute to the increasingly problematic policing of sexually explicit materials, as well as aspects of the international sex trade will, particularly the problem of human trafficking and sexual exploitation. You will attend a one-hour lecture and one-hour seminar each week for the whole semester, and be assessed through two essays of 1000 and 2000 words.
  • Investigative Psychology
    The psychological study of crime, criminals and victims within a legal framework is known as criminal or forensic psychology. On this module, you'll examine the role that psychology and psychological perspectives can play in the criminal justice process, paying particular attention to the application of psychology to police investigations including the collection, examination and use of investigative information and evidence, as well as to the role of the psychologist in the court room. You'll explore the different ways criminal psychologists contribute to police training, investigations and interviewing as well as their contribution to understanding evidence in the courtroom and how juries process that evidence. You'll also examine and evaluate the challenges and pitfalls of giving such advice. You’ll look at actual case studies designed to familiarise you with the types of criminal cases and associated outputs produced by criminal psychologists in a real world setting. You'll be assessed by way of a poster presentation on an aspect of offender profiling and through a profiling method evaluation.
  • Neighbourhood Policing and Community Safety
    Neighbourhood policing is a British model of community policing that has become deeply embedded in policing practice in the UK. You will examine community and neighbourhood policing and the theoretical and empirical evidence upon which these models are based. You will also explore the nature, theories and research evidence around crime prevention and community safety, including the emergence of anti-social behaviour as a distinct concept with its own set of social and policing responses. You will explore common themes in neighbourhood and community policing, such as visibility and foot patrol, community engagement, problem-solving and partnership working. You will relate the themes to research evidence regarding police legitimacy and public confidence, and evaluate various neighbourhood policing practices in the context of limited resources. You will also engage with theoretical perspectives on crime prevention and social control as well as the research evidence on what works to prevent crime. Your assessment will comprise a 1,000 word report on a given element of community policing and a 2,000 word essay.
  • Police and Counter-terrorism
    Perceptions of rising extremism and growing insecurity have increased the opportunities for tighter and arguably more invidious forms of social control in western societies in the rhetorical 'war on terror'. On this module you will identify and critically examine terror-related issues through criminal justice, criminological and legal perspectives. You will investigate the shift from 'old' terrorism to 'new' terrorism, and apply a range of theoretical perspectives to selected cases of 21st century domestic and international terrorism. You will contrast various typologies of terrorist, such as the 'home-grown', the 'lone-wolf', religious extremist, animal rights activist or neo-Nazi, and consider the various types of media coverage that each category attracts. Counter-terrorist measures will be evaluated in relation to a number of factors, such as prejudice, propaganda, nationalism, xenophobia and religion. You will critically evaluate concepts such as universal human rights, freedom of speech, radicalisation, axis of evil and war on terror, and apply them to examples of strategies that have been utilised and justified in the international 'war against terror'. You will attend a one hour lecture and one hour seminar each week for the whole trimester.
  • Presenting Evidence
    This module will introduce you to the principles of gathering evidence and conducting interviews, case building and management, and presenting evidence in Court. You will gain an insight into how crimes are investigated, including when and how investigations are discontinued. Your focus will be on the theories of effective interviewing using the PEACE model as it applies to both suspects and witnesses, developing your knowledge of Court procedures and types of evidence. You will learn the principles of the PEACE model and apply it by conducting a mock interview, producing an evidential document and presenting evidence in a mock Court setting (based on your own investigation). This module will build on your prior learning from Years 1 and 2. This material is essential if you hope to become a Police Officer, but also valuable if you to are looking for employment as Police Staff or in the wider Criminal Justice System. You will attend a weekly lecture and seminar, and be assessed through a report outlining your case and a critical reflection on your presentation of evidence in the mock courtroom.
  • Organised Crime
    Organised Crime begins with a discussion of the UN 2030 sustainability goals and you will identify policies and practices, justifying why they have to be challenged in these uncertain times. You must be prepared to research and discuss controversial cases relating to organised crime and the far-reaching, and often hidden impact that they can have on society, the economy and policing jurisdictions. You will consider the nature and shape of criminal networks, and the potential immunity that power and influence can wield. You will critically evaluate the potential exploitative opportunities that are available to criminal networks, focusing on particular selected recent examples of white collar crimes, environmental crimes and corporate crimes each week. For the assignment, you will select a relevant theme and explore it within a variety of social, political, media, legal and cultural contexts. You will test your adaptability skills by facilitating discussion of organised crimes from a range of social contexts; and cultivate an understanding of a variety of ‘voices of authority’. You will be assessed by way of 2000 word speech exercise in which you will write three speeches on one selected theme, addressed to three contrasting audiences, and a presentation of one of them.

Optional modules available in years two and three

  • Anglia Language Programme
    The Anglia Language Programme module will allow you to study a foreign language as part of your course. You may choose to take two language modules in place of options on your course from the second semester of your first year, or in the second or third year. You can choose from the following: Chinese (Mandarin), French, German, Italian, Japanese, or Spanish. In order to experience the learning of a new language, you must select one that you have not learned before.

Assessment

Modules are subject to change and availability.

You’ll demonstrate your learning in various ways across our modules, ensuring that you develop the essential knowledge and skills needed to complete the course. Our assessment methods include essays, presentations, case study reports, group work research and, finally, your major project.

Where you'll study

Your faculty

In the Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, we use our expertise and connections in Cambridge and beyond to nurture creativity through experimentation and risk-taking, and encourage critical thinking, in order to educate, entertain, inspire and understand, as well as to improve people’s lives.

Where can I study?

Chelmsford
Tindal Building on our Chelmsford campus

Our striking, modern campus sits by the riverside in Chelmsford's University and Innovation Quarter.

Explore our Chelmsford campus

You’ll study on our Chelmsford campus, home to our Policing Institute for the Eastern Region (PIER). PIER facilitates and leads research that will improve policing practice across the region and contribute to reshaping the professional development of police officers and staff, helping them prepare for future challenges.

Fees & funding

Course fees

UK & EU students starting 2020/21 (per year)

£9,250

International students starting 2020/21 (per year)

£13,500

Fee information

For more information about tuition fees, including the UK Government's commitment to EU students, please see our UK/EU funding pages

Entry requirements

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