A person giving an eye test to someone else

Myopia is the leading cause of distance refractive error, with estimates of 50% of the global population being affected by 2050. Our myopia research is a collaboration between research groups at ARU and partners globally.

VERI researchers have been awarded industry funding to run a trial of a highly anticipated spectacle lens which is understood to slow down short-sightedness (myopia) in children. Dr Manbir Nagra, Professor Shahina Pardhan and Dr Holly Price will investigate the efficacy of the lens as part of a 12-month trial in UK based children. The study is currently recruiting children who are aged 6-14 who have been diagnosed as myopic for at least 6 months.

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We investigated factors related to the accommodation system both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in myopes. Our researchers identified reasons for such deficits in accommodation and were the first to show that reduced accommodative response in myopes may be due to a decrease in sensitivity to negative lens blur, and that the optimum focus for a system which drives accommodation is more negative in myopes.

We investigated potential treatments for myopia, mainly vision training and specially designed contact lenses to improve the accuracy of accommodation during near-work. Preliminary data indicated that the treatment was successful in improving the accommodative responses of myopes. We were the first to show to show that accommodative facility and lag of accommodation are independently associated with the progression of myopia in young adults.

We have contributed to the debate on the contribution of peripheral refractive error to myopia progression by demonstrating how these errors vary in the nasal and temporal retina in distance and near vision.

Our study in India examined the interaction between family history of myopia and amount of near-work, showing that myopes with a family history of myopia progress more than those without, and also highlighting association between myopia and IQ scores.

We are conducting a number of clinical trials on myopia and progression of myopia.

Support for this research has come from the Government of Australia and the Brien Holden Institute.

Professor Shahina Pardhan
Professor Peter Allen
Dr Holly Barr
Dr Manbir Nagra
Professor Rupert Bourne


Ducloux, A., Marillet, S., Ingrand, P., Bullimore, M. A., Bourne, R. R. A., Leveziel, N., 2021. Progression of myopia in teenagers and adults: a nationwide longitudinal study of a prevalent cohort. British Journal of Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319568

Foreman, J., Salim, A. T., Praveen, A., Fonseka, D., Ting, D. S. W., Guang He, M., Bourne, R. R. A., Crowston, J., Wong, T. Y., Dirani, M., 2021. Association between digital smart device use and myopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Digital Health. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00135-7

Bullimore, M. A., Ritchey, E. R., Shah, S., Leveziel, N., Bourne, R .R. A., Flitcroft, D. I., 2021. The Risks and Benefits of Myopia Control. Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.04.032

Tricard, D., Marillet, S., Ingrand, P., Bullimore, M. A., Bourne, R. R. A., Leveziel, N. 2021. Progression of myopia in children and teenagers: a nationwide longitudinal study. British Journal of Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-318256

Leveziel, N., Marillet, S., Dufour, Q., Lichtwitz, O., Bentaleb, Y., Pelen, F., Ingrand, P., Bourne, R., 2020. Prevalence of macular complications related to myopia – Results of a multicenter evaluation of myopic patients in eye clinics in France. Acta Ophthalmologica, 98(2), pp. e245-e251. doi: 10.1111/aos.14246

Price, H., Allen, P. M., Radhakrishnan, H., Calver, R., Rae, S., Theagarayan, B., Sailoganathan, A., O'Leary, D. J., 2013. The Cambridge anti-myopia study: Variables associated with myopia progression. Optometry and Vision Science, 90(11), pp. 1274-1283. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000067

Allen, P. M., Radhakrishnan, H., Price, H., Rae, S., Theagarayan, B., Calver, R. I., Sailoganathan, A., Latham, K. and O’Leary, D. J., 2013. A randomised clinical trial to assess the effect of a dual treatment on myopia progression: The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 33(3) pp. 267-276. doi: 10.1111/opo.12035

Radhakrishnan, H., Allen, P. M., Calver, R. I., Theagarayan, B., Price, H., Rae, S., Sailoganathan, A., O’Leary, D. J., 2013. Peripheral refractive changes associated with myopia progression. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54(2) pp. 1573-1581. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10278